One of the toughest things in
journalism is conducting interviews. Of
course finding a good story is tough, but once you find it what’s next. The reason that interviews are tough is
because not only you have to talk to people you also need to get certain
information out of them. Sometimes you simply want to know what their
experience has been; in other words, you want to collect their testimony as
witnesses. Sometimes you want their expert opinion, sometimes their knowledge
of the facts. One of the first steps in conducting an interview, after deciding
who you want to interview, is to figure out which of these kinds of information
you are after. Let's go through some of the things involved in planning and
carrying out an interview.
Once you’ve selected a person that
you want to talk to, consider what information you want to get. It may even be a good idea to jot down a list
of things to ask. Make an
appointment. Call the person you wish to
talk with in advance that he or she has time to get ready, but not so far in
advance that their schedules are not yet developed. When you make an appointment, introduce yourself,
explain the purpose of your call, explain why you would like to talk with the
person, and request permission to set a time and place. If you will be recording the interview, and I
strongly encourage you that you do, ask for permission to do so ahead of time.
Do your homework. Prepare for the interview by finding out
about the person you will be interviewing and by preparing questions to
ask. Get yourself familiar with the
topic and terminology. If you want
expert opinion, create more pointed questions, questions that suggest
particular issues you would to explore.
Questions still need to be open ended.
Be willing to let the person drift off to a neighboring topic, because
she or he may know more about the lay of the argument then you do, and when he
or she may be giving you information you really wanted and didn’t know how to
ask for. Reserve a very general question
for the end, something like, “have other things occurred to you during the
interview that you would like to say at this time?” If you want facts, make your questions as
precise as possible, making it clear that you are after data. It is important that the person you are
interviewing know ahead of time that he or she will be asking such questions,
because people seldom carry that kind of data around in their heads. Reserve all your general questions for the
end of the interview.
Be forthcoming when you meet,
introducing yourself and briefly reminding the person why you wanted to talk.
If you are unsure about how to spell the person's name, ask about that and
about their official title. As you ask
the questions and listen to the responses, look at the person's face and eyes
to show that you are interested and that you value what you're getting. From
time to time make brief notes. Try to
get some direct quotes, saying something like, "I like the way you said
that. Can I quote you?" And then get the words down in quotation marks. Briefly summarize what you have covered and
how you understand the information you have been given. Thank the person for his or her time and
willingness to share. Don't linger. If
you promised to take only 30 minutes, then stick to your schedule, but don't be
rude. Say something like, "I promised to take only 30 minutes of your
time, and I see I have. Is there any last thing you want to add before I
go?" You might also say something like, "This has been very
informative. If some other question occurs to me, may I get back in touch with
When you leave, spend time
immediately writing down notes, but don’t bury yourself in not taking. Make sure you have the date and place of the
interview. Partner up with the transcription services company, so that you have the transcript of your
interview in a timely manner, proof read your interview.